Scoliosis - Types, Causes and Treatment in India

Scoliosis – Types, Causes and Treatment in usa

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Scoliosis is a neuromuscular disorder caused by several causes of curvature of the spine. A normal person’s spine has a curve near the shoulders and in the lower back. But in case of external scolioseit will look like bone condition. A three-dimensional misalignment of the spine that creates a curve is one of the main symptoms of scoliose. scoliose usually occurs in children between the ages of 10-15, but it also occurs in adults as well as children. scoliose can describe a spinal curve of 15 degrees or more than 50 degrees. Curves can occur at different points in the spine, causing the pelvis to bend or bend predominantly. scoliose is a progressive disorder. Therefore, it is essential to treat scoliose as soon as the condition is diagnosed.


According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (ANS) 80% of spinal scoliose is undetectable. It is diagnosed in the first seven years of a child’s life. Common causes are:

  • Genetic conditions
  • Birth defects
  • Neurological abnormalities

Types of scoliosis

scoliose can have many types of causes which are classified according to the age when it starts to progress including its causes. The main types of scoliose are:

Idiopathic scoliosis

Scoliosis can have many types of causes which are classified according to the age when it starts to progress including its causes. The largest category of scoliose types is idiopathic scoliose – a term used to refer to cases without a specific cause. scoliose whose causes are not conditions identified as “idiopathic” by a physician. It can be sub-divided into:

  • scoliose in children: 0 to 3 years
  • Adolescent scoliose: 4 to 10 years
  • Adolescent scoliose: 11 to 18 years
  • scoliose in adults: 18+ years

According to the ANS, scoliose is the most common type of scoliosein teenagers.

Congenital scoliosis

This is a rare form of scoliose, which is present at birth and is caused by partial development of the vertebrae before birth. It occurs in only 1 in 10,000 newborns and is less common than adolescent-onset types of scoliose. Even if a child is born with scoliose, it is sometimes impossible to detect until the child reaches adolescence.

Types of Congenital scoliose:

  • Incomplete formation of vertebrae
  • Failure to separate vertebrae
  • Combination of bars and hemivertebra
  • Compensation curve
  • Neuromuscular or myopathic scoliose

Neuromuscular scoliose in children is caused by diseases that affect the neurological and musculoskeletal systems of the body. For example, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, metabolic diseases and connective tissue disorders such as Marfan’s syndrome trigger scoliose in children. It occurs when the brain or nerves are damaged due to illness or injury. They can affect the body’s muscle-nerve pathways from the brain down the spine. Patients with this condition often develop scoliose or kyphosis or both.

Difference between scoliosis and kyphosis:

  • Kyphosis: Excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal (A-P) plane is referred to as kyphosis. The condition is sometimes known as ’round back’ in severe cases and ‘hunback’.
  • scoliose: Curvature of the spine in the coronal (lateral) plane is known as scoliose.

Degenerative scoliose

Adult-onset scoliose is caused by degenerative changes in the spine and usually occurs after the age of 65. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc joints can lead to spinal misalignment over time as the person ages.

Causes of scoliosis

In most cases, doctors are unable to identify the exact causes of scoliose. That being said, about 30% of children with idiopathic causes have a family history of scoliose but the exact genetic association cannot be identified. But some Scoliose has an exact cause. Doctors divide the curve caused by scoliose into two categories: nonstructural and structural.

Nonstructural (functional): This type of Scoliose causes the spine to bend but is a temporary condition as it may later return to its normal alignment. Curvature that occurs due to non-structural causes is the result of another medical problem. Such as one leg being shorter than the other, muscle spasms, ruptured discs or abdominal problems.

The curvature of the spine does not return to normal in this type of scoliose and cannot be reversed as this type of scoliose is not permanent. This condition results from abnormally shaped vertebrae or neuromuscular disease.

Scoliosis symptoms

The most common symptoms of scoliose in children start from the age of 10 to adolescence. Symptoms of scoliose include:

  • Center slightly away from the head
  • An irregular ribcage, where the ribs may be at different levels
  • One hip is more fleshy than the other
  • One shoulder, (or shoulder blade) higher than the other
  • Back pain but not too severe
  • Both legs are of unequal length
  • Uneven waist area

Symptoms of scoliose in children may include:

  • A bulge on one side of the chest
  • The child may consistently curl to one side
  • In more severe cases, problems with the heart and lungs, breathing difficulties

Factors affecting scoliosis treatment

Scoliosis -Treatment in India

There are many treatment options for scoliose in children and scoliose treatment in adults, depending on factors such as

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Intensity of curve
  • Curve position
  • Bone maturation

The three main types of treatment for scoliosis are:

Treatment of scoliose depends on the severity of the individual’s condition. Severe scoliose progresses over time, so doctors may recommend surgery to reduce the severity of the spinal curvature.


For patients with mild scoliose, the doctor may recommend a brace. This is done to prevent further curvature of the spine. However, it will not cure existing scoliose conditions. As a patient you have to wear the brace all the time, including at night. The longer braces stay with your body, the more effective the treatment will be. For any activity, children or adults with mild scoliose can play with this brace off.


Sometimes, doctors may use castings instead of braces to treat pediatric scoliose so that the child’s spine can maintain its normal position as it grows.

Because this type of casting, can wear out over time, and the casting can be changed over time.

Scoliosis Surgery: Spinal Fusion

In severe cases of scoliose, where it has progressed to worsen over time, the doctor may go for spinal infusion Levoscoliosis treatment. This is a scoliose surgery in which two or more vertebrae are fused with new bone grafts. Devices such as hooks, screws, metal rods, or wires may be used to hold parts of the spine together for bony healing. You may be shifted to the ICU for a few days for better care by the medical staff and discharged after a few days.

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