is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

Is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

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The day X (pseudonym) came into this world, the whole family including his parents was filled with joy. After eight years of marriage, and the arrival of a new guest in the family, what a joke! But seeing this excessive joy, the god may have smiled a smile.

When X was eight months old, behavioral abnormalities began to be noticed. Staring at the electric bulb with big eyes, being afraid of toys, spilling food on people around him while eating, and learning to speak late – these strange behaviors started appearing in him.

is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

Day by day the situation arose that even if someone called X, he did not respond. The loner talks to himself, laughs for no reason, and makes strange gestures with his mouth. The whole family became worried about him due to this incoherent behavior. The constant tears of the parents or the cares of other family members, all failed to bring X back to normal life.

X’s parents realized there was no other option but to seek medical help. He appeared in the doctor’s chamber with the child. After several tests and checkups, the doctor said that X was suffering from a disorder called Autism Spectrum Disorder.

What is ASD?

Autism spectrum disorder A Severe Mental is a neurological disorder. This problem occurs due to defects in the nervous system, which causes social, communicative, and behavioral impairments in the individual. It is also called autism by many people.

A child with A Severe Mental has difficulty developing normally. Because of this, speech, gestures, and behavior are confined within certain limits, and in many cases, the child has fewer mental and language skills. Usually, the symptoms of this disease appear within 18 months to 3 years.

Prevalence of A Severe Mental has been observed all over the world regardless of ethnic, cultural, or economic background. Various types of environmental pollution are the main reasons for the increase in the number of children with A Severe Mental .

is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

The English word autism is derived from the Greek word αυτος (autos), meaning self or self. Its Bengali terminological equivalent is self-indulgence. Swiss physician Eugen Bleuler first used the term autism in an article published in the American Journal of Insanity in 1911.

However, in 1943 John Hopkins Hospital located in Baltimore, Maryland, USA psychologist Dr. Leo Canner was the first to report on this issue by looking at the consistency of aggressive use in 11 mentally ill children. He named this disorder ‘Early infantile autism’. He was the first to notice that children with A Severe Mental lost interest in connecting or communicating with other people. His first article on this subject was published in the journal The Nervous Child.

At about the same time, the Austrian scientist Dr. Hans Asperger made similar observations. But his observations were superior to Canner’s. He discovered the existence of a disorder different from traditional autism, called Asperger’s syndrome. However, due to World War II and the fact that his articles were not translated into English, his observations were not recognized for a long time. In 1997, his articles gained recognition and wide popularity.The A Severe Mental -affected brain; Image source:

In 2013, autism and Asperger’s syndrome were merged and the disorder was included in the 5th edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Classification of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) under the name ‘autism spectrum disorder’.


There is no specific cause of A Severe Mental . Environmental and genetic factors can also cause this disease. The causes usually vary depending on the complexity, symptoms, or severity. These are-

Genetic problems: A person can develop A Severe Mental due to various genetic abnormalities. Genetic disorders, such as Rett syndrome or Fragile X syndrome, can cause the disease. Some genes interfere with the transport system of brain cells and increase the severity of the disease. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized.

Various infections: Bacterial infections, viral infections and air pollutants play an active role in the development of spectrum disorders.

Physiological problems: An abnormal increase in serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain can lead to A Severe Mental . Also, during the early stage of fetal growth, the brain cells communicate with each other due to abnormalities in brain structure. As a result, the newborn is more likely to develop A Severe Mental. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

Other factors: Gender plays a role in the transmission of A Severe Mental . The likelihood of ASD development is four times higher in males compared to females. Also, having a family history of autism increases the child’s chance of developing ASD. Also, having a child at an older age and having complications during pregnancy increases the chance of the child developing ASD. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized


Symptoms of A Severe Mental vary from child to child. However, they can typically be categorized into three groups.

1. Social barriers

  • Being able to hold eye contact for a very short period of time.
  • Reluctance to listen to people around and not respond to what others say.
  • Inability to point to objects of choice.
  • Not reacting when others show anger, sadness or affection.

2. Communication impairment

  • Learning to pronounce words too slowly and late.
  • Baby makes mild vocalizations during the first year but stops later.
  • Repeating a word or part of a sentence, failing to form meaningful sentences.
  • Hearing a word or sentence and saying it correctly. It is called echolalia.
  • Using unfamiliar and irrelevant words, which only other patients can understand.

3. Repetitive behavior

  • Repeating the same action continuously. This is called ‘stereotype’ behavior.
  • Feeling an excessive interest or attachment to a particular subject.
  • Being excited or fascinated by a moving object. As an illustration, consider the rotating wheels of a moving vehicle.
  • Abnormal use of limbs. For example, waving hands, moving fingers, distorting the face, etc.

A Severe Mental is also diagnosed by some common symptoms. These are-

  • Inability to participate in creative or imaginative play.
  • Excitement or frustration in a new environment.
  • Exhibit aggressive/destructive behavior (seen in a minority).
  • Feeling strange types of fear or panic. For example, being afraid of a particular scene on TV.
  • Tendency to self-harm, eg, hand-biting, head-banging.
  • Shows particular irregularities in sleep.
autism spectrum disorder capitalized


Basically, this disease is diagnosed in two stages.

In the first step, the doctor observes the normal development of the child. Children identified with developmental problems are referred for higher monitoring. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

The second step is a reassessment by a specialist physician and other professionals. At this stage, it is possible to determine whether the child has autism or any other developmental problems. Autism spectrum disorder can be reliably diagnosed in children by the age of two. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized


1. Behavioral process

• Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): This method is used to solve behavioral problems of the patient. There are three steps in this process. These are-

a) Discrete Trial Training (DTT): This method tries to eliminate the initial complexities of children. Positive enforcement and ancillary measures are taken to ensure correct behavior and response. It attempts to teach the desired behavior or skill to children until they are able to learn it.

b) Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI): This type of ABA aims to address specific behavioral problems of autistic children. This method is usually used in children aged three to five years. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

c) Pivotal Response Training (PRT): In this method, four major areas of development are targeted – motivation, self-management, self-initiative, and responsiveness. The patient has to participate directly in this treatment. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

2. Structural process

  • Occupational therapy: With the help of this therapy, the patient is taught various techniques, with the help of which he can lead a normal daily life. This process strengthens gross motor skills and fine motor skills. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized
  • Speech therapy: This therapy helps improve the patient’s communication skills. In this process, the patient is taught alternative strategies to express their thoughts to others. This is an important part of the interdisciplinary intervention approach, as impairments in interpersonal communication are common in children with A Severe Mental .
  • Sensory Integration Therapy: This therapy helps with senses like seeing, hearing or smelling. This therapy helps in identifying the object that the patient wants to avoid the sound or touch of. This results in decreased abnormality and increased social skills in the patient. is autism spectrum disorder capitalized

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